The study analyses the legal frameworks in six integrity-related areas.
Human Resource Management
The area of Human Resources Management includes key HRM functions, such as: recruitment and selection of mid and lower level civil servants and senior managerial positions; professional development; salary system and termination of employment and demotion.
Conflict of Interest
Conflict of interest referes to a conflict between an official´s public duty and private interests in those situations when the discharge of public function negatively influences or could influence the discharge of the public function. Guidelines on prevention and resolution of CoI are required in order to enable discharging of public functions in the public interest.
Free Access to Information
Freedom of Information is the right to access information held by public bodies. It reflects the fundamental premise that all information held by governments and governmental institutions is in principle public and may only be withheld if there are legitimate reasons for not disclosing it, such as typically privacy and security.
The area of public procurement includes international standards in conducting public procurement: transparency at all stages, integrity of public procurement, mangement of the process, oversight and control and institutional set-up.
Whistleblowing is reporting by employees or former employees or illegal, irregular, dangerous or unethical practices by employers. The establishment of an adequate level of whistle-blowers’ protection is one of the key elements for the improvement of integrity in the public sector.
Improper superior orders
The area of Improper Superior Orders covers key issues pertaining to accountability of civil servants for following improper superior orders, obligations in case when they believe that a received superior order is improper, and effective complaint mechanisms available to civil servants when their rights are threatened or denied as a result of refusal to comply with an improper superior order.